An AI robot lawyer was set to argue in court. Real lawyers shut it down. : NPR

Joshua Browder’s artificial intelligence startup, DoNotPay, planned to have an AI-powered bot argue on behalf of a defendant in a case next month, but he says threats from bar associations have made him drop the effort.

Provided by Joshua Browder


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Provided by Joshua Browder


Joshua Browder’s artificial intelligence startup, DoNotPay, planned to have an AI-powered bot argue on behalf of a defendant in a case next month, but he says threats from bar associations have made him drop the effort.

Provided by Joshua Browder

A British man who planned to have a “robot lawyer” help a defendant fight a traffic ticket has dropped the effort after receiving threats of possible prosecution and jail time.

Joshua Browder, the New York-based CEO of the startup DoNotPay, created a way for people contesting traffic tickets to use arguments in court generated by artificial intelligence.

Here’s how it was supposed to work: The person challenging a speeding ticket would wear smart glasses that both record court proceedings and dictate responses into the defendant’s ear from a small speaker. The system was powered by a few leading AI text generators, including ChatGPT and DaVinci.

The first-ever AI-powered legal defense was set to take place in California on Feb. 22, but not anymore.

As word got out, an uneasy buzz began to swirl among various state bar officials, according to Browder. He says angry letters began to pour in.

“Multiple state bar associations have threatened us,” Browder said. “One even said a referral to the district attorney’s office and prosecution and prison time would be possible.”

In particular, Browder said one state bar official noted that the unauthorized practice of law is a misdemeanor in some states punishable up to six months in county jail.

“Even if it wouldn’t happen, the threat of criminal charges was enough to give it up,” he said. “The letters have become so frequent that we thought it was just a distraction and that we should move on.”

State bar associations license and regulate attorneys, as a way to ensure people hire lawyers who understand the law.

Browder refused to cite which state bar associations in particular sent letters, and what official made the threat of possible prosecution, saying his startup, DoNotPay, is under investigation by multiple state bar associations, including California’s.

In a statement, State Bar of California Chief Trial Counsel George Cardona said the organization has a duty to investigative possible instances of unauthorized practice of law.

“We regularly let potential violators know that they could face prosecution in civil or criminal court, which is entirely up to law enforcement,” Cardona said in a statement.

Leah Wilson, the State Bar of California’s executive director, told NPR that there has been a recent surge in low-cost, poor-quality legal representation that the association has launched a new crackdown on, though she would not comment on whether DoNotPay was part of this effort.

“In 2023, we are seeing well-funded, unregulated providers rushing into the market for low-cost legal representation, raising questions again about whether and how these services should be regulated,” she said.

Pivoting away from AI legal defense amid threats

Instead of trying to help those accused of traffic violations use AI in the courtroom, Browder said DoNotPay will train its focus on assisting people dealing with expensive medical bills, unwanted subscriptions and issues with credit reporting agencies.

Browder also still hopes it is not the end of the road for AI in the courtroom.

“The truth is, most people can’t afford lawyers,” he said. “This could’ve shifted the balance and allowed people to use tools like ChatGPT in the courtroom that maybe could’ve helped them win cases.”

The future of robot lawyers faces uncertainty for another reason that is far simpler than the bar associations’ existential questions: courtroom rules.

Recording audio during a live legal proceeding is not permitted in federal court and is often prohibited in state courts. The AI tools developed by DoNotPay require recording audio of arguments in order for the machine-learning algorithm to generate responses.

“I think calling the tool a ‘robot lawyer’ really riled a lot of lawyers up,” Browder said. “But I think they’re missing the forest for the trees. Technology is advancing and courtroom rules are very outdated.”

DoNotPay has raised $28 million, including funding from prominent venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz, according to analytics firm PitchBook, which estimates that DoNotPay is worth around $210 million.

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